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Planting Pineapple and Cultivation Guide to a Successful

Posted On : July 04, 2021

Pineapple farming is extremely common and popular in all countries around the world. one among the foremost commercially fruit crops in all countries.

The pineapples are one among the foremost liked fruits and they rank next to mango. it's known for its rich, sweet taste and spiny texture. it's actually a delicious fruit. it's Spiny and thorny on the surface , but sweet and delicious.

The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is really a tropical plant with produce and it's the foremost economically significant plant within the Bromeliaceae . it's indigenous to South America, where it's been cultivated for several centuries.

Commercial pineapple farming plays a really important role in fruit supply in many countries. it's actually the third most vital tropical fruit within the world production.

The pineapples grow as a little shrub. The individual flowers of the unpollinated plant fuse to make an aggregate fruit . The plants are generally propagated from the offset produced at the highest of the fruit, or from a side shoot, and typically mature within a year.

The introduction of the pineapple to Europe within the seventeenth century made it a big cultural icon of luxury. And it's been grown commercially in greenhouses and lots of tropical plantations since the 1820s.

Hawaii was a dominant producer of pineapples, within the twentieth century, especially in the US. But by 2016, Brazil, Costa Rica, and therefore the Philippines accounted for nearly one-third of the world’s total production of pineapples.

Botanical Classification

  • Botanical Name: Ananus comosus
  • Family: Bromeliaceae
  • Order: Bromeliales
  • Class: Liliopsida
  • Division: Magnoliophyta
  • Chromosome Number: 50

Origin Of Pineapple

Researchers that believe pineapple originated in Southern Brazil and Paraguay. Indians domesticated the wild relatives of pineapple. After that, it spread all over South and Central America to Mexico, West Indies, and all over the world.

Area & Production

Every year nearly 26,289,762 tonnes of pineapple is produced worldwide. Costa Rica is the largest producer of pineapple with a production of around 2,930,661 tonnes of every year. Other pineapple-producing countries are Brazil, the Philippines, China, India, Thailand, Nigeria, etc.

India is the fifth-largest producer of pineapples around 1,964,000 tonnes every year.

More than 900 thousand hectares of land are cultivated of pineapple in the world.

Ideal Area for Pineapple Cultivation

Pineapple Commercial cultivation in India started in four decades back. The conditions in large parts of India are ideal for pineapple cultivation, it does not hold any position of importance among the major fruits cultivated in our country.

Pineapples cultivated in more rainfall areas and coastal regions of peninsular India and also hilly areas of the North-Eastern region. And also pineapple can be grown commercially in the interior plains with low rainfall and supplementary irrigation. It is grown in most of the states in India.

The humid climate condition is suitable for the cultivation of pineapple and the best quality ‘Mauritius Pineapple’ comes from Kerala. The fruits from Kerala are very much in demand throughout India and also in foreign countries, because best in quality, sweetness and has good flavor.

Climate condition for Pineapple Plantation

Pineapple grows well Areas with a heavy rainfall are best. It requires rainfall of 1500mm per year , it can grow well in areas having 500mm to 5550mm of rainfall. The Pineapple fruit grows well near the seacoast and inland, And temperature ranges from 15.5 to 32.50 C. Low temperature, hot sunshine and total shade are harmful and can not tolerates l. It can grow well up to 1525m above sea level.

Soil for Pineapple Cultivation

Pineapple can grows almost any kind of soil, very important provided it is free-draining. Some acidic soil with a pH range of 5.5 to 6.0 is good for pineapple cultivation. Heavy clay soil is not good for pineapple farming. It can grow well in sandy, alluvial or laterite soil. It usually flowers in the month of February to April and the fruits get ready from July to September

Choose a Variety of Pineapple

By choosing the right variety is most important for the pineapple farming business. Various varieties are cultivated in different countries and areas throughout the world. Here we are describing some common varieties that grown in India.

Charlotte Rothchild: These fruits are large in size, oblong, and tapering towards the crown. pineapple Flesh is pale yellow, fiberless, and juicy. This variety is largely grown in Kerala and Goa.

Giant Kew: The fruits are oblong, and tapering near the crown. Fruits look with shallow and broad eyes they turn yellow color when ripe. The flesh is yellow in color and fruits are fiberless and juicy.

Jaldhup: The fruits are sweet in taste, blended with an acidic taste. The fruits have a characteristic alcoholic flavor , it is easily distinguishable.

Kew: The fruits are oblong, tapering towards the crown. The fruits have shallow, broad eyes they turn yellow when ripe, and flesh is juicy fiberless, and pale yellow in color. The leaves have a short spine near the tips and near the base attached to the stem. fruits reach up to 1.5 and 2.5 kg.

Mauritius: The fruits are medium in size, and deep yellow or red in color. The yellow fruits are most oblong and fibrous. But these red fruits are sweeter than the yellow.

Queen: These fruits are of rich yellow color, and flesh is looking golden yellow color. The fruits are less juicy, crisp, and have the typical ‘pineapple’ aroma , flavor. There are small eyes in the body of pineapple fruits . The leaves are brownish red and short. fruits reach up to 0.9 and 1.3 kg.

Propagation and Planting of Pineapple

The choice of planting material is crucial because the performance of the plants developed depends on the materials planted. it's always advisable to use uniform size material of monotype for getting uniform growth of the plants, enabling uniform cultural operations and getting harvest at 1 time from such a field. Hence selection of the right type and size of planting material is important for commercial planting.

Pineapple is usually propagated from suckers or slips. Suckers come from the underground of the plant are commonly used. Slips come from the fruiting stem and crown on top of the fruit. After the fruit is harvested, stalks are dig discs and used for propagation. Plants grown from suckers and give fruits in 18 months, whereas those from slips and suckers propagated from disc cuttings take over two years.

Among the kinds and sizes of propagules tried, slips and suckers weighing around 350 and 450 g respectively were found best for yield and quality for Kew pineapple. Mass multiplication of propagation material is significant to bring the fresh area under cultivation. are often is often possible only a variety of plantlets can be obtained from one mother plant, unlike a couple of suckers or slips. it's been found possible to use leaf cuttings from the crowns of Kew pineapple for the multiplication of planting material. Total 10-15 leaf cuttings are made up of each crown. However, these cuttings will take even longer than crowns for flowering and thus are only recommended where planting material isn't available.

Suckers are first cured by stripping off the lower leaves, after by drying within the sunlight, or in partial shade for 3 to four days before planting. they're planted either in flatbeds, where there's no danger of water stagnating, or in shallow trenches, which are filled because the suckers grow and develop. Care should be taken to ascertain that they grow and develop. Care should be taken to ascertain that the bud or `heart’ of the suckers doesn't get buried. A planting density of 43,500 plants per hectare is often followed, keeping a distance of 30 cm between plant and plant, 60 cm between rows, and 90 cm between beds. The season is that the best time for planting. The system of planting will vary counting on the topography of land and rainfall. There are 4 types of planting systems .they are flat-bed planting, contour planting, furrow planting, and trench planting.

Land Preparation for Pineapple Cultivation

The field is ready by ploughing, harrowing, etc., before planting. within the hills, proper terracing may be a necessity. consistent with the Department of Agricultural Research and Education, ICAR, Government of India, the population density of 44,444 plants/ha with a spacing of 30cm x 60cm x 90cm is best for getting more yield under rainfed conditions.

Spacing for Pineapple Farming

High-density cultivation is suggested for commercial viability. The density of 63,400 plants per hectare is right for sub-tropical and mildly humid conditions.

Whereas a plant density of 53,300 plants per hectare for decent and humid conditions, spaced at 25 cm from plant to plant within a row, 60 cm from row to row, and 90 cm from trench to trench provide a high yield.

But in high fertile, rainfed, and hilly areas, a somewhat lower panting density of 31,000 plants per hectare is suggested .

High-Density Planting

The yield of 70-105 tonnes/ha. could also be obtained under high-density planting, the rise in yield/unit area is 45-85 tonnes/ha. Less weed infestation, protection of fruits from sunburn, increased production of propagules (suckers and slips)/unit area and non-lodging of plants are added advantages of high-density planting.

Water Management

Pineapple may be a shallow feeder with high nitrogen and potassium requirement. Since these nutrients are susceptible to heavy losses within the soil, practices concerning the time of application and therefore the sort of fertilizer determine their efficient usage. Experts supported research trials conducted at a variety of locations advise giving N and K2O at 12 g each per plant. there's no need for P application. However, if the soils are poor in P, 4 g of P2O5/plant are often applied. Nitrogen should be given in 6 split doses. the primary dose of N is often given 2 months after planting and therefore the last dose 12 months after planting. Potash should tend in 2 split doses. Entire P and half the dose of K are often given at the time of planting and therefore the remaining K, 6 months after planting. Application of fertilizer under rainfed conditions has got to be done when moisture is out there .

Fertilizer and Nutrient Management

Pineapple is a shallow feeder with high nitrogen and potassium requirement. Since these nutrients are prone to heavy losses in the soil, practices relating to the time of application and the form of fertilizer determine their efficient usage. Experts based on research trials conducted at a number of locations advise giving N and K2O at 12 g each per plant. There is no need for P application. However, if the soils are poor in P, 4 g of P2O5/plant can be applied. Nitrogen should be applied in 6 split doses. The first dose of N can be given 2 months after planting and the last dose 12 months after planting. Potash should be given in 2 split doses. Entire P and half the dose of K can be given at the time of planting and the remaining K, 6 months after planting. Application of fertilizer under rainfed conditions has to be done when moisture is available.

Interculture in Pineapple Plantation

Earthing up is an important operation in pineapple cultivation aimed toward good anchorage to plants. It involves pushing the soil into the ditch from the ridge where trench planting may be a common practice. the pineapple roots are shallow, the plants are eventually lodged especially under conditions of flat-bed planting in heavy rainfall areas. Lodging of plants when the fruits are developing would end in lopsided growth, uneven development, and ripening of fruits. This operation becomes more important in ratoon crops, because the base of the plant shifts up, crop after crop. High-density planting would minimize the need for this operation, because the plants prop one another preventing lodging.

Controlling Weeds

Weeding is particularly important from the economic point for any cultivation. Nutgrass and hariyali are the foremost common sorts of weeds in pineapple. Since hand weeding may be a laborious process and cumbersome process, chemical weeding is advisable. A combination of diuron with bromacil as a pre-emergency spray is typically recommended. The pre-emergency spray is 0.6 Kg of dirons with 0.8 Kg of bromacil. It repeated with half the concentration after five months of the first application. Mulching.

Removal of Suckers, Slips & Crown

Suckers and slips grow with the emergence of inflorescence and whereas slips grow with the developing fruits. Most suckers and slips are removed while just one or two are retained. Since an increased number of slips delay the maturity of fruits, they're removed as soon as they attain the dimensions required for planting. On the opposite hand, fruit weight increases with an increase in suckers. Therefore, desuckering is often delayed. If the farmer intends an early harvest, then the slips are removed as soon as they seem .

Pineapple Plant protection

Not serious pest or disease affected in pineapple. However, Mealybug and Heart rots are pests and diseases affected by pineapple.

Mealybug : It can be controlled by dipping the basal portion of the planting l in 0.02 to 0.05 % methyl parathion as a prophylactic measure. Applied carbofuran @ 15 to 17kg per ha it can effectively control the pest.

Heart rot : Applied Bordeaux mixture 4:4:50 or copper oxychloride @2g per liter. Sucker dipped in fungicide in front of planting.

Harvesting and Handling of Pineapple.

The time between planting and harvesting of pineapple is usually it takes 2-2.5 years. They started to flower after 12-15 months of planting and start fruiting after 15-18 months. Usually, the fruits take ripen after 5 months of inflorescence. Fruits cultivated for canning purposes are harvested as soon as a small change in fruit is noticed. They harvested only after they develop a golden yellow color. Color stages are categorized as follows:

  • CS1: all eyes green, no traces of yellow;
  • CS2: 5 to 20% of the eyes yellow;
  • CS3: 20 to 40% of the eyes yellow;
  • CS4: 40 to 80% of the eyes yellow;
  • CS5: 90% of eyes yellow, 5 to 20% reddish-brown;
  • CS6: 20 to 100% of eyes reddish brown

Storage

Fruits can be kept without damage for 10-15 days after harvesting. When fruits are transported to long distances or several days, refrigerated transport is required to slow down of ripening process.

Pineapples can be stored well for of 20 days when refrigerated at 10-130 C. The best storage is at 7.20 C and 80 or 90% relative humidity.

Packing

Pineapples Fruits are packed in baskets with bamboo strips. For local markets, and the fruits are arranged in the weighting of 20-25 kg. The second layer of fruits is arranged on the crowns of the first layer of fruits. For most distant markets, fruits are packed individually with paddy straw.

Transportation

Transportation service helps to market your products easily. Road transport by trucks/lorries is the popular mode of transport easy approach from färm to the market.

Marketing

Marketing is an important part of the pineapple farming business. And, if you can market your pineapple properly, then you will make good profits.

The pineapples already have a demand and value in the fruit market. So, you can easily sell your pineapple in the local market. The farmers easily sell their pineapple at the farm gate to the middlemen. Most of the cultivators sell their crops through trade agents or commission agents at the market.

Nutritional Benefits of Pineapples

The pineapple is the most popular fruit all in the world, because of its pleasant taste and flavor. It had a great source of vitamins and minerals. It had nutrients per serving of 165 grams chunks, and the following vitamins are:

  • Calcium 21 mg
  • Calories 74
  • Cholesterol 0 mg
  • Carbohydrate (total) 19.5 g
  • Fat (total) 0 g
  • Protein 1 g
  • Potassium 206 mg
  • Sodium 2 mg
  • ugars 13.7 g
  • Vitamin C 28 mg

Health benefits of pineapples.

  • Pineapples rich source of vitamin C, antioxidants. Vitamin C is a helpful for heart disease and joint pain.
  • The pineapples rich source of manganese, It helps for developing strong bones and connective tissue.
  • It reducing the risk of macular degeneration, a disease that people who are aged.
  • pineapple also contains dietary fiber, and keeps your intestines healthy.
  • Pineapples contain small amounts of bromelain, that break down protein, and help for digestion.
  • Pineapples it help to reduce excessive coagulation of the blood,
  • It has lots of vitamin C, pineapple bromelain it may help to reduce mucus in the throat and nose.

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