Tomatoes also are one the foremost eaten fruits and vegetable that has acquired an antique place within the kitchen of every and each people throughout the planet . and since of which, tomatoes are the topmost vegetable and fruit crop that's grown across the planet . After potato tomatoes are the world's largest vegetable crop which also leads the list of canned vegetables.
Basically, tomatoes are native to Peruvian land and therefore the region around Mexico. Tomato farming is a far successful crop over the opposite fruits and vegetable crops with sharp and instant income.
Basically, this is often a sprawling and herb which grows up to three meters tall bearing yellow flowers. The tomato fruit quality depends on the variability or cultivar chosen for cultivation since there many sorts of hybrid varieties are present within the local market within the different portion of the planet . they're the nice and cozy season crop that thrives it best under warm atmosphere and funky climate conditions but this crop isn't ready to resist frost and high humidity conditions during the growing period. Also, in growing tomatoes, the intensity of sunshine also affects pigmentation and color of fruit alongside fruit setting density on plants.
The tomato may be a warm-season crop. The temperature of 20-25 °C is taken into account to be ideal for tomato cultivation, and therefore the excellent quality red color is developed in tomatoes at 21-24 °C temperature.
Due to intense heat temperature above 43 °C, the plants get burnt, and flowers and little fruits also fall, whereas but 13°C and greater than 35 °C decrease the fruits and therefore the red color production ratio.daytime fruits gets with attractive colors.
Tomato grows on a good range of soils, but it grows particularly well on deep, well-drained soils with good drainage ability. Sandy loam, red soils and medium black soils are considered best suited for tomato cultivation. permanently yield, the pH of soil must be at 7-8.5.
For tomato plantation, land are often prepared to a fine tilth by thorough ploughing 4-5 times and levelling. At time of last ploughing, add decomposed trash and Carbofuron (5kg) or organic (8kg), per acre, for optimal soil preparation.
Pusa- 120, Pusa shital, Pusa Gaurav, Pusa Early Dwarf, Pusa Ruby, Arka Saurabh,Arka Ahuti ,Arka Vikas,Arka Meghali, HS101, HS102, HS110,Hisar Arun,Hisar Lalit, Hisar Lalima, Hisar Anmol,Co-1, CO 2, CO 3, S-12,PKM ,Punjab Chhuhara,Pant Bahar, Pant T3 and Solan Gola
Pusa Hybrid , Arka Abhijit, Arka Vishal, Arka Shresta, Arka Vardan, Vaishali, COTH 1 Hybrid Tomato, Rashmi, MTH, Naveen, Rupali, Avinash, Sadabahar, Sonali and Gulmohar.
For tomato cultivation seedlings are raised in nursery beds its need about 500 to 550 gm of seeds are needed per hectare land.
Tomato farming are often done throughout the year with the power of enough irrigation during the entire growing periods. One can easily cultivate tomato for about 3 times during a year with no frost conditions during the growing period.
However, the simplest tomato planting season for growing tomatoes 3 times a year are
For the first crop, transplanting done from Dec to Jan.
For the second crop, transplanting done from June to July.
For the third crop, transplanting done from Sept to Oct.
Transplantation should be done on the idea of availability of irrigation facilities.
Irrigation in tomato production is sort of important for healthy growth of plants, quality and quantity of fruits. it's important to take care of good moisture level during its growing period. However, irrigation should be done on the idea of plant requirements. In hot and dry climate conditions, irrigation should be done on weekly base whereas it should be done at an interval of 10 days during cold and funky climate conditions. But, lookout that the water need of plants depends on soil moisture level, soil type, and climate conditions.
Note that an extended spell of drought situation followed by immediate heavy watering at the time of fruit set may end in fruit cracking problem.
When it involves the way of irrigation, irrigating with drip irrigation method is more preferred by farmers since it saves times and used water the simplest way, especially in those areas where there's water scarcity problem. Irrigate the crop @ every 3 to 4 days to the present crop.
First weeding start after 20 to 25 days of plant transplanting. Always maintain clean farm because weed completes with crop also they gives shelter to the so many harmful insect.
Mulching is additionally good option control weed after black plastic (50 microns) mulching is usually used which controls about 95% weeds.
Alternatively, you'll use organic mulch like sugar cane trash, which controls about 60% of weeds.
Tomatoes respond all right to the appliance of manure and fertilizers and timely application of suitable manure and fertilizer in good proportion multiplies the yield of fruits repeatedly . The application of balanced fertilizer on a requirement basis is important to get a desirable yield.
The Nitrogen availability in a small amount is found to increasing the fruit size, taste, color, quality, and quantity. it's also helpful in achieving desirable acidic fruits flavor. the supply of adequate potassium is additionally required for healthy plant growth, quality and quantity of fruits. Mono Ammonium Phosphate are often applied as initial fertilizer to satisfy the phosphorus requirement during germination stage and seedling stages. Whereas the calcium content is additionally beneficial in controlling soil pH and organic nutrient content.
But, lookout that sandy soils require fertilizer at a better rate. Also, incorporate about 30 tonnes of farmyard manure at the time of the last plowing and spray the seedling with an appropriate starter micronutrient solution.
Generally, about 125 kg of Nitrogen, 50 kg of Potassium and 50 kg of Phosphorous is important for commercial tomato cultivation. attempt to give Nitrogen during a split of doses. the primary one should tend at the time of transplanting seedlings on the bottom whereas the 2nd and 3rd one should tend after about one month and two months of seedling transplanting.
To control pests and insects Spraying of neem seed extract @ 5 % can killing the early stages of various kinds of larvae.
Growing 2 to 3 rows between each of 15 tomato rows it gives to reducing the pests and disease.
Adding 250 gm of neem cake and 20 gm of Trichoderma before preparation land is helpful in pests protection.
The neem cake and leaf or caster leaf and cake @ 400 gm per sq. meter to protect nematodes effectively
Tomatoes are mainly attacked by bacteria, fungus, and viruses, however, soil solarization before sowing of seedling on the bottom is that the best way of controlling all types of diseases effectively. Seed treatment of selected seeds is another an efficient thanks of minimizing the occurrence of all types of bacterial, fungal, and virus diseases.
Crop rotation is another task to perform to attenuate the occurrence of the varied sorts of disease in tomato cultivation. However, uprooting of the heavily infected plants and burning at a foreign point is to be administered , as soon as infection appears within the crop. Sanitation is additionally helpful in reducing the disease incidence.
The fruits ready for first picking in 60-70 days after transplanting the tomato plant. The stage of harvesting depends upon the aim to which the fruits are to be used. the some stages of harvesting are there-
Dark green color - Dark green color is turned and a reddish pink shade comes on fruit. Fruits are harvested at this stage. These fruits are sprayed with ethylene 48 hours before shipping. green tomatoes will ripen poorly and be of inferiority . an easy thanks to determining maturity is to slice the tomato with a pointy knife. If seeds are cut, the fruit is just too immature for harvest and can not ripen properly.
Breaker stage - Dim pink color comes on ¼ a part of the fruit. These tomato fruits are harvested at this stage to make sure the simplest quality. Such fruit is less susceptible to damage during shipment often fetch a better price than less mature tomatoes.
Pink stage - Pink color observed on ¾ a part of the fruit
Reddish pink- Fruits are getting stiff and full fruit comes reddish-pink. these Fruits get ready for local sale
Fully riped - Fruits are getting fully riped and soft . These fruits are used for processing.
Fruits are harvested early in the morning or evening. The fruits are harvested by hand to separate fruits from the stem. Harvested fruits must be kept only in a basket or crates . All the fruits don't mature at the same time, they're harvested at an interval of 4 days. and there'll be 7-11 harvests during a crop lifetime .
Tomato cultivate per hectare according to variety and season. Average yield varies from 20-25 t/ha. Hybrid Tomato varieties may yield upto 50-60 t/ha.