The current challenge in farming is. The prices of all the inputs to agriculture are rising, such as the price of seed, fertilizer, hired labor and pesticides. Therefore, farmers have to resort to alternatives to mitigate these. Rather, we have to deal with the natural system or the traditional methods of our ancestors rather than the alternatives. For example, the production of natural fertilizers, natural insect repellents, herbal insecticides.
Vermicomposting is a process of preparing naturally compost with the help of earthworms.It is one of the easiest processes to reuse agricultural wastes and to produce high-quality compost. Earthworms eat biomass waste and excrete it in a digested form called worm casts. The worm castings gives fertility to the soil. The casts are rich in nutrients of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium.
Natural nutrient fertilizer can be prepared using cow dung, crop residues, Hotel refuse, Leaf litter, Biodegradable portion of urban and rural wastes, Waste from agro-industries, and household vegetable waste. Cow dung should be 10-20 days old.
Although there are many varieties of earthworms, reddish earthworms are best suited for composting. Soil worms can be purchased through the District Agricultural Extension Center or we can produce the earthworms we need.
Vermicomposting is done 3 times as bed, pit system and tank system. Put beds of natural dung and other waste on the floor in bed. It can produce large quantities of earthworm manure. In the pit system, the pit can be dumped and dung and other fodder waste. But there may not be enough ventilation in the cavity. The cost is high. The tank system is the best method for middle-class farmers
The tank with a capacity of 500-600 liters. Or you can use the same if you have a plastic tank in your home. Dumplings of cow dung and chopped green manure and dried leaves into 3: 1 pot. Leave this mixture intact for 15-20 days. Finely chop the leaves and the green leaves to a size of 15-2௦ cm. On top of that, cow dung and other waste should be put in the same amount. 500-1000 Earthworms can be placed in the top layer and Spread the cold water after leaving the earthworms. These inner layers should always be sprayed with cold water to keep them moist. Stir for 3௦ days. After 45 to 5௦ days the earthworm will be ready. Always choose the shade, moist and cool areas to make earthworm manure.
It is very easy to produce earthworms. 10 kg of dung is mixed with 2 kg of jaggery and the mixture is poured into the soil in a good humid place. This mixture is poured into the soil. If the water is sprayed for a period of ten days, the earthworm itself will be formed. .
The African earthworm, Red worms, and composting worms are used for vermicompost production.
In the tank raw material is completely decomposed it turns in to black and granular. If compost gets ready Watering should be stopped. The vermicompost should be kept over a heap downward by strong light so that earthworms could moves to cow dung from compost. The compost can be separated after two days and get ready for use.
Vermicompost Doses size depends on the nature of the crops. For agricultural crops, 2-3 tonnes for 1 hectare. For fruit trees, depending on the age of the tree, 5 to 1௦ kg per tree can be used. For vegetable plants, one ton per hectare for growing seedlings and 400-500 g for growing plant. For flowering plants, use 750-1000 tonnes per hectare.